Comparative Photos Show Rocky Intertidal Changes Between 2013 and 2016

With the last bout of sea star wasting syndrome eastern Pacific starfish took a big hit. I describe the progression at this intertidal site in A Peek at Pisaster After Two Years of Sea Star Wasting Syndrome. After three years their numbers are still down. Removal experiments have shown we can expect changes in rocky intertidal communities when Pisaster disappears. The current starfish smackdown is a natural do over of the experimental work- on a continental scale. Wasting has been with us since 2013 so the early results are already in. If we see changes can we attribute them to loss of starfish?

June 7, 2016 – There are plenty of Pisaster around, but not the numbers I saw in 2013.

The causality question is worth reflecting on because it takes more than Pisaster’s trophic influences to order the intertidal. Familiar patterns of distribution and abundance result from the interplay of upwelling, physical disturbance, settlement dynamics, temperature, acidification, and keystone trophic effects. So if you think we have a clean natural experiment going on here, think again. The thing about natural experiments is they have a lot of uncontrolled variables.

June 6, 2016 – Lesions on these Pisaster make me think wasting is still around.

Any conclusions I might draw about effects of starfish loss would be open to interpretation. So instead of stumbling around on the slippery algae-covered rocks of causality, I’ll settle for showing a few comparative photos from one of my home beaches. If we see any changes, we’ll have to be content not knowing the underlying causes.

P1010545 (2)
April 26, 2013
P1100845 (1)
June 6, 2016

In the pair of photos above the view is to the south. Morning sun from the top left adds shadow and glare. The blackish salt and pepper-colored layer in the upper third of both images is a Mytilus bed. Lower you see a phenomenal turn of color as anemones (2016) replace red turf (2013). The photo below is a more intimate 2016 view of the tall rectangular rock just right of center in the lower half of the 2013 and 2016 views.

June 6, 2016 – The rocky intertidal on display

By 2016 gooseneck barnacles, Pollicipes polymerus, tip this landmark. Lower is a patch of Anthopleura elegantissima, gray and packed. Sharing the middle ground, Anthopleura xanthogrammica (green), and an algae (brown)- I don’t know that one. Mazzaella, at least I think it’s Mazzaella, blankets the lowest exposed rock.


P1010543 (2)
April 26, 2013
P1100831 (2)
June 6, 2016

Here the view is out to sea. The morning sun is behind and over my left shoulder making for glare if it’s cloudy (2013) and shadows if it’s sunny (2016). The kelp you see in the foreground in 2013 is Laminaria sinclairii.

April 26, 2013 – Laminaria sinclairi

P1010624 2
April 26, 2013
June 6, 2016

The view in this pair of photos is to the north. The morning sun is over my right shoulder creating annoying glare and shadows. A 2013 trench around the rock has filled in. The rich growth of Phyllospadix (green) in 2013 is reduced and partially bleached in 2016. Since the shadows make interpretation tough in the lower reaches of the 2016 shot, I’ll point out that in 2013 Phyllospadix gave way to red turf. In 2016 there is an intervening layer of Mazzella. I think it’s Mazzella. If you know what it is, please let me know. Below is a more intimate view of the sunny southwest facing slope on the right side of the images above.

June 6, 2016 – On top, Mytilus and Pollicipes polymerus; in the middle, billows of new Pollicipes polymerus; anemones, Anthopleura, below

If you are interested in this type of thing, this post is a one-year-later follow-up to Before and After Sea Star Wasting Syndrome: Three Comparative Photos Show Rapid Changes in the Rocky Intertidal, in which I illustrated changes between 2013 and 2015.

For me, the idea of looking for changes after the loss of a major predator like Pisaster comes from Robert Paine’s work. His foundational removal experiments in the 1960s helped him pioneer the keystone species concept. The best celebration of Paine and the keystone species concept I know of is this short animation. I first saw it at the 2015 Ecological Society of America meeting in Baltimore. It was also the only time I met Paine.

Codium, some reds, and Laminaria in the foreground, a tide pool and rocks in the background
June 7, 2016 – A good place to reflect on intertidal zonation

Note: I lightly edited the text and updated the links on Jun 9, 2018.


  1. This was all very interesting. I’ve just watched the little video you linked to, and I’ve learnt a lot about sea stars. I also compare photos sometimes from the same spot on a beach, taken several years apart, and am surprised at the differences. I never know whether they are natural changes or something to worry about.

  2. Wonderful photos. I know nothing of sea life, other than the odd name here and there. What I see in your photos are a beautiful array of varying colours, textures, plants and creatures. Great close-ups, reflections and light. Lovely 🙂

  3. Very nice article to read and great photos again Steve and again love your blog and what i am learning about sea life.Also sorry about your loss it sounded like he was a very important part of this experience for you.

    1. Terry I’m so happy to hear this and are learning something about sea life too. I appreciate hearing from you. Too bad about the passing of Paine; he left quite a legacy.

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